INGRESS PROTECTION Analysis

The IP (INGRESS PROTECTION) protection level system was drafted by IEC (INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION) to classify electrical appliances according to their characteristics of dustproof and moisture-proof. The IP protection level is composed of two numbers. The first number indicates the level of dustproofing and prevention of foreign objects entering the appliance. (The foreign objects contained in this article contain tools, and human fingers are not allowed to touch the live parts of the appliance. In order to avoid electric shock, the second number indicates the degree of airtightness of the appliance against moisture and water immersion. The higher the number, the higher the degree of protection.

 

 

display method
The degree of protection is often expressed in terms of IP followed by two numbers, which are used to clarify the level of protection.
The first digit indicates the extent to which the equipment is resistant to dust, or the extent to which people are protected from damage in a sealed environment. Represents the level of prevention of the entry of solid foreign objects, the highest level is 6;
The second digit indicates the degree to which the device is waterproof. Represents the level of water intake prevention, the highest level is 8.
The first digital dust rating after IP
digital
Scope of protection
Description
0
No protection
No special protection for people or things outside
1
Prevent the intrusion of solid foreign objects larger than 50mm in diameter
Prevents the human body (such as the palm) from coming into contact with the internal parts of the appliance due to accidents, preventing the invasion of foreign objects of larger size (greater than 50mm in diameter)
2
Prevent the intrusion of solid foreign objects larger than 12.5mm in diameter
Prevent human fingers from coming into contact with parts inside the appliance to prevent intrusion of medium-sized (larger than 12.5mm diameter) foreign objects
3
Prevent the intrusion of solid foreign objects larger than 2.5mm in diameter
Prevents intrusion of tools, wires, and similar small foreign objects with a diameter or thickness greater than 2.5 mm into contact with parts inside the appliance
4
Prevent the intrusion of solid foreign objects larger than 1.0mm in diameter
Prevents intrusion of tools, wires, and similar small foreign objects with a diameter or thickness greater than 1.0 mm into contact with parts inside the appliance
5
Prevent foreign objects and dust
Completely prevent the invasion of foreign objects, although it can not completely prevent dust from invading, the intrusion of dust will not affect the normal operation of the electrical appliances.
6
Prevent foreign objects and dust
Completely prevent foreign objects and dust from intruding
The second digit after IP: waterproof rating
digital
Scope of protection
Description
0
No protection
No special protection against water or moisture
1
Prevent water droplets from entering
Vertical drops of water (such as condensate) do not damage the appliance
2
Prevents water droplets from immersing when tilted 15 degrees
When the appliance is tilted vertically to 15 degrees, dripping water will not cause damage to the appliance.
3
Prevent spraying water from immersing
Prevent rain or prevent water sprayed in the direction of vertical angle less than 60 degrees from invading the appliance and causing damage
4
Prevent splashing water from immersing
Prevent water from splashing in all directions from invading the appliance and causing damage
5
Prevent jetting of water into the water
Low pressure water spray for at least 3 minutes
6
Prevent large waves from immersing
Prevent large amounts of water spray for at least 3 minutes
7
Prevent water from entering when immersed in water
30 minutes of immersion effect in water up to 1 meter deep
8
Prevent water from immersing when sunk
Prevents continuous soaking effects in water with a depth of more than 1 meter. The exact conditions are specified by the manufacturer for each device.
 
IP test

Range

The waterproof test includes a second feature number of 1 to 8, ie the degree of protection code is IPX1 to IPX8.
Grade waterproof
(1) IPX 1
Method Name: Vertical Drip Test
Test equipment: drip test device
Placement of the sample: Place it on the rotating sample stage at 1r/min according to the normal working position of the sample. The distance from the top of the sample to the drip port is not more than 200mm.
Test conditions: dripping amount is 1.0±0.5mm/min
Duration: 10 min
(2) IPX 2
Method Name: Tilt 15° Drip Test
Test equipment: drip test device
Placement of the sample: Make one side of the sample at an angle of 15° to the vertical, and the distance from the top of the sample to the drip is not more than 200 mm. After each test, change the other side for a total of four times.
Test conditions: dripping amount is 3.0±0.5 mm/min
Duration: 4 × 2.5 min (10 min total)
(3) IPX 3
Method Name: Water Spray Test
experiment method:
a. Pendulum type watering test
Test equipment: pendulum tube type water splashing test device
Sample placement: Select the swing tube of the appropriate radius so that the height of the sample table is at the diameter of the swing tube. Place the sample on the sample table so that the distance from the top to the sample spout is not more than 200 mm, and the sample stage does not rotate.
Test conditions: The water flow rate is calculated according to the number of water spray holes of the swing tube, and each hole is 0.07 L/min. When water is sprayed, the spray water sprayed from the spray holes in the 60° arcs on both sides of the swing tube is sprayed toward the sample. The test sample was placed in the center of the semicircle of the pendulum tube. The pendulum tube is swung 60° on both sides of the vertical line for a total of 120°. Each swing (2 × 120 °) about 4s
Test time: continuous watering 10 min
b. Nozzle type water spray test
Test equipment: hand-held water splashing test device
Sample placement: the parallel distance between the top of the test and the nozzle of the hand nozzle is between 300mm and 500mm.
Test conditions: A baffle with a counterweight should be installed during the test, and the water flow rate is 10 L/min.
Test time: 1 min per square meter based on the surface area of ​​the sample to be inspected (excluding the installation area), at least 5 min
(4) IPX 4
Method Name: Splash Test
experiment method:
a. Swing tube splash test
Test equipment and sample placement: same as the above paragraph a of IPX 3;
Test conditions: Except for the conditions described below, it is the same as the above paragraph A of IPX 3; the water spray area is the spray water sprayed to the sample in the 90° arc of each side of the midpoint of the pendulum tube. The test sample was placed in the center of the semicircle of the pendulum tube. The pendulum tube swings 180° on both sides of the vertical line, for a total of about 360°. Each swing (2 × 360 °) about 12s
Test time: Same as the above paragraph a of IPX 3 (ie 10 min).
b. Sprinkler type splash test
Test equipment and sample placement: same as paragraph b of IPX 3 above;
Test conditions: Remove the baffle with balance weight on the equipment, and the rest are the same as the above paragraphs of IPX 3;
Test time: Same as the above paragraph 5 of IPX 3, ie 1 min per square meter (excluding installation area) at least 5 min according to the surface area of ​​the sample to be tested
(5) IPX 5
Method Name: Water Spray Test
Test equipment: the nozzle has an inner diameter of 6.3mm
Test conditions: the distance between the test sample and the spout is 2.5m ~ 3m, and the water flow is 12.5 L / min (750 L / h)
Test time: 1 min per square meter based on the surface area of ​​the sample to be inspected (excluding the installation area) Minimum 3 min
(6) IPX 6
Method name: strong water spray test;
Test equipment: the nozzle has an inner diameter of 12.5 mm
Test conditions: the distance from the test sample to the spout is 2.5m ~ 3m, and the water flow is 100 L / min (6000 L / h)
Test time: Calculated according to the surface area of ​​the sample to be tested, 1 min per square meter (excluding the installation area) at least 3 min
(7) IPX 7
Method Name: Short-term water immersion test
Test equipment and test conditions: water immersion tank. The size should be such that the sample is placed in the immersion tank and the distance from the bottom of the sample to the water surface is at least 1 m. The distance from the top of the sample to the water surface is at least 0.15m
Test time: 30 min
(8) IPX 8
Method Name: Continuous diving test;
Test equipment, test conditions and test time: It is agreed by both the supply and demand (sales and purchase) that the severity should be higher than IPX 7.
Note: In addition, many outdoor electronics are also emphasizing floating capacity.
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Text
IP (INGRESS PROTECTION) protection standards and standards for waterproof testing are:
1) International protection and waterproof test standards drafted by IEC (INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION): International Electrotechnical Commission standard IEC 529 – 598
2) National standard GB 700 – 86
3) GB 4208-2017 enclosure protection grade (IP code), etc.
IP protection level laboratory: The laboratory capable of IP level test mainly has a testing laboratory, environmental reliability and electromagnetic compatibility testing center, aerospace environmental reliability testing and testing center, Suzhou Electrical Apparatus Research Institute, and national electrical product quality. Supervise the inspection center and so on.
 
Level definition
IP stands for Ingress Protection. IEC IP protection is an important criterion for the safety protection of electrical equipment. The IP protection system provides a standard for dustproof, waterproof and anti-collision of electrical equipment and packaging. The method of classification, which is recognized by most European countries, was drafted by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in the IED 529 (BS EN 60529: 1992) IP code.
The degree of protection is often expressed in terms of IP followed by two numbers, which are used to clarify the level of protection.
The first number indicates the extent to which the equipment is resistant to dust, or the extent to which people are protected from damage in a sealed environment. I represents the level of prevention of the entry of solid foreign bodies, the highest level is 6;
The second number indicates the degree to which the device is waterproof. P stands for the level of water ingress prevention, the highest level is 8.
Such as motor protection class IP65, protection class IP55 and so on.
Contact electrical equipment protection and foreign object protection level (first number) Electrical equipment waterproof protection level (second number)
First number Dust protection range Second number Waterproof protection range
0 no protection - 0 no protection -
1 Protect the solid foreign body detector with a diameter of 50mm and larger. The diameter of the sphere is 50mm. It should not be completely entered. 1 Water droplet protection Vertical drops should not cause damage.
2 Protection of 12.5mm diameter and larger solid foreign body detectors, the diameter of the sphere is 12.5mm, should not be fully entered. When the cabinet is tilted by 15 degrees, the protective drip cabinet is inclined vertically at any angle of 15 degrees. Water droplets should not cause damage
3 Protection of 2.5mm diameter and larger solid foreign body detectors, the diameter of the sphere is 2.5mm, should not be fully entered. 3 Protection of splashed water Water splashed from both sides of the vertical line at a 60 degree angle should not cause damage.
4 Protection of 1.0mm diameter and larger solid foreign body detectors, the diameter of the sphere is 1.0mm, should not be fully entered. 4 Protective water spray Water sprayed from each direction should not cause damage.
5 Protective dust It is impossible to completely prevent dust from entering, but the amount of dust entering will not cause damage to the equipment. 5 Protective water jets Water from each direction should not cause damage to the water.
6 Dust enclosure The cabinet should not enter dust at a low pressure of 20 mbar. 6 Protection against strong water. Strong water from the cabinet in each direction should not cause damage.
7 Protection against short-term flooding When the cabinet is immersed in water for a short time under standard pressure, there should be no water immersion that can cause damage.
8 Protection against long-term flooding. It can be immersed in water under certain conditions, and should not cause damage.
Note: The diameter of the detector should not pass through the hole in the cabinet.
Know the waterproof rating of electronic products JIS (IPX)
0 no protection
1 Anti-drip type I Water droplets falling vertically have no harmful effects
2 Anti-drip type II There is no harmful effect on water droplets falling within 15" from the vertical direction.
3 Rainproof type Rainfall within 60 degrees from the vertical direction has no harmful effects
4 splash-proof type Water splash in any direction has no harmful effects
5 Anti-spray type Directly affected by water spray in any direction has no harmful effects
6 Water resistant type Directly subjected to water injection in any direction will not enter the interior
7 Immersion type Under the specified conditions, it will not enter the interior even if it is immersed in water.
8 Water type Long-term immersion in a certain pressure of water can still be used
9 Moisture-proof type It can be used when moisture with a relative humidity of 90% or more
The international industrial standard IP waterproof rating and the Japanese industrial standard JIS waterproof rating are close, with a scale of 0-8, and the IP rating also defines dust. IPxx dustproof and waterproof grade
Dust rating (first X)
0: no protection
1: Prevent large solid intrusion
2: Prevent medium-sized solids from invading
3: Prevent small solids from entering the intrusion
4: Prevent solid objects larger than 1mm from entering
5: Prevent harmful dust accumulation
6 : Completely prevent dust from entering
Waterproof rating (second X)
0: no protection
1 : Drops of water dripping into the casing have no effect
2: When the outer casing is tilted to 15 degrees, the water drops drip into the outer casing without affecting
3: Water or rain has no effect from the 60 degree corner to the outer casing
4: The liquid is splashed from any direction to the outer casing without damage
5: Rinse with water without any damage
6 : Can be used in the cabin environment
7 : Resistant to water (1m) in a short time
8 : Soaking water for a long time under a certain pressure
Example: A scale or display meter is marked as IP65, indicating that the product can completely prevent dust from entering and flushing with water without any damage.
Provisions for waterproofing experiments in the IPXX class.

 

 

 

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